بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

第五課
Lesson 5

文章閱讀︰阿拉伯商人
Reading: The Arab merchants
 
中文意思
English meaning
單字讀音
Pronunciation of a single word
أستأجرتُ كتابا من أستاذي
و عنوانُ الكتابِ هو الإسلامُ في الصين
قرأتُ الكتابَ و محتوياتـُه جذابة
قالتْ: كانَ التجّارُ العربُ يتاجرونَ في الصين
و جاءوا بالإسلام إلى الصين
asta:jartu kitaaban min ustaadhii
wa 'anwaanu-lkitaabi huwa alïslaamu fi-ssiini.
qara:tu-lkitaaba wa muhtawayaatuhu jadhaabatun.
qaalat kaana-ttujjaaru-l'arabu yutaajiruuna fi-ssiini
wa jaaüu bi-lïslaami ila-ssiini.
我向我的老師借了一本書。
這本書的書名是伊斯蘭在中國
我讀了這本書。它的內容很有趣。
它說到阿拉伯商人在中國做生意
並把伊斯蘭帶來中國。
I borrowed a book from my teacher.
The name of the book is Islam in China.
I read the book and its content was interesting.
It said the Arab merchants did business in China
and brought Islam to China.

等式句子:過去式
Equational sentence: past tense
He was 他是 kaana كان
They were (masculine dual) 他倆是 kaanaa كانا
They were (masculine plural) 他們是 kaanuu كانوا
She was 她是 kaanat كانـَتْ
They were (feminine dual) 她倆是 kaanataa كانـَـتا
They were (feminine plural) 她們是 kunna كـُنَّ
You were 你是 kunta كـُـنـْـتَ
You were (masculine dual) 你倆是 kuntumaa كـُـنـْـتـُـما
You were (masculine plural) 你們是 kuntum كـُـنـْـتـُمْ
You were 你是 kunti كـُـنـْـتِ
You were (feminine dual) 你倆是 kuntumaa كـُـنـْـتـُـما
You were (feminine plural) 你們是 kuntunna كـُـنـْـتـُنَّ
I was 我是 kuntu كـُـنـْـتُ
We were 我們是 kunnaa كـُـنـّا

文法和句法
Grammar and syntax


The way to denote possession in Arabic is to put the two nouns together, the possession without the definite article followed by the possessor with the definite article, as in كتاب الأستاذِ kitaabu-lüstaadhi "the book of the teacher." The possessor noun takes -i (  ـِ  ).

كان kaana 'he was' is used to construct an equational sentence in the past tense. Since the present tense of كان is always understood in equational sentences, it is never written.
For example: كانت المكتبة كبيرة
kaanati-lmaktabatu kabiiratun.
The library was big.
المكتبة كبيرة
almaktabatu kabiiratun.
The library is big.

If كان is followed by another verb in the past tense, together they may mean that the action had been completed (pluperfect tense).
For example: كان الأستاذ دخل إلى الجامعة
kaana-lüstaadhu dakhala ila-ljaami'ati
The professor had come into the university.

If كان is followed by another verb in the present tense, together they may mean that the action simply happened in the past.
For example: كان الأستاذ يدرّس في الجامعة
kaana-lüstaadhu yudarrisu fi-ljaami'ati
The professor taught in the university or The professor was teaching in the university.

Since the Arabic tenses are not so carefully distinguished as in English, the precise meaning should be interpreted according to context. Note that كان changes to plural form only when the plural subject comes before it. It is singular, not plural, when it comes before the plural subject, as in the reading above.
生字
Vocabulary
商人 businessman noun, masculine taajirun تاجر
  plural tujjaarun تجّار
老師、教授 teacher, professor noun, masculine ustaadhun أستاذ
  plural asaatidhatun أساتذة
大學 university noun, feminine jaami'atun جامعة
  plural jaami'aatun جامعات
屋 house noun, masculine baitun بيت
  plural buyuutun بيوت
內容 content noun, feminine muhtawayatun محتوية
  plural muhtawayaatun محتويات
大;年長 big; old (age) adjective kabiirun كبير
細;年幼 small; young (age) adjective saghiirun صغير

第四課 Lesson 4 | 目錄 Table of content | 第六課 Lesson 6

最後更新日期:2001年10月31日